In 2020 and 2021, as a result of the Covid pandemic, summer exam gradings followed the process of Centre Assessed Grades (CAGs) and Teacher Assessed Grades (TAGs) respectively. As a result, direct comparisons cannot be made in the same way for these years. In 2022, national grades remained higher than pre-pandemic levels, but lower than the grades from 2020 and 2021. In 2023, the government committed to bring grades back down, towards the 2019 averages. As such, direct comparison between any of the years from 2019 to 2023 requires an element of contextual understanding, and should be done with caution.